Narcissism, perfectionism, and interest in cosmetic surgery

Cultural commentators argue that we live amid an “age of narcissism,” where narcissistic self-absorption and perfectionistic striving encourage interest in cosmetic surgery.1 Case studies and media reports also suggest that narcissism (vanity, exhibitionism, superiority, and entitlement) and perfectionism (ceaselessly demanding perfection of oneself) foster interest in cosmetic surgery.2 Such observations, although provocative, have yet to be subjected to empirical scrutiny.