Perfectionism and narcissism: A meta-analytic review

Theoretical accounts suggest an important relationship between perfectionism and narcissism, and 25 years of research has tested these accounts. We meta-analyzed this literature, providing the most comprehensive test of the perfectionism-narcissism relationship to date. Thirty studies were located (N = 9,091). After controlling for overlap among perfectionism dimensions, random-effects metaanalysis indicated self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and perfectionistic selfpromotion were related to narcissistic grandiosity, whereas socially prescribed perfectionism, perfectionistic self-promotion, and nondisclosure of imperfection were related to narcissistic vulnerability. Results suggest grandiose narcissists strive toward lofty goals, impose unrealistic demands on others, and promote an image of perfection. Results also suggest vulnerable narcissists actively promote an image of infallibility while defensively concealing imperfections in response to perceptions of others as demanding.