Perfectionism and the five-factor model of personality: A meta-analytic review

Over 25 years of research suggests an important link between perfectionism and personality traits included in the five-factor model (FFM). However, inconsistent findings, underpowered studies, and a plethora of perfectionism scales have obscured understanding of how perfectionism fits within the FFM. We addressed these limitations by conducting the first meta-analytic review of the relationships between perfectionism dimensions and FFM traits (k = 77, N = 24,789). Meta-analysis with random effects revealed perfectionistic concerns (socially prescribed perfectionism, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, and discrepancy) were characterized by neuroticism (rc+ = .50), low agreeableness (rc+ = −.26), and low extraversion (rc+ = −.24); perfectionistic strivings (self-oriented perfectionism, personal standards, and high standards) were characterized by conscientiousness (rc+ = .44). Additionally, several perfectionism–FFM relationships were moderated by gender, age, and the perfectionism subscale used. Findings complement theory suggesting that perfectionism has neurotic and non-neurotic dimensions. Results also underscore that the (mal)adaptiveness of perfectionistic strivings hinges on instrumentation.